straight line depreciation formula

On the debit side, you enter the amount in a depreciation expense account. This is a contra-asset account (an asset account with a credit balance rather than a debit balance as would normally occur). To calculate the straight line basis, take the purchase price of an asset and then subtract the salvage value, its estimated sell-on value when it is no longer expected to be needed. Then divide the resulting figure by the total number of years the asset is expected to be useful, referred to as the useful life in accounting jargon. For example, due to rapid technological advancements, a straight line depreciation method may not be suitable for an asset such as a computer.

straight line depreciation formula

As explained above, the cost of an asset minus its accumulated depreciation is its book value. Some assets are more suited to other methods of calculating depreciation, especially if you want to take a large write-off early on. Understand straight-line depreciation and how to apply it when depreciating fixed assets. I hope you now have a better knowledge of how to calculate straight line depreciation, how it affects your financial statements, and some of the benefits and drawbacks of doing so. This number will show you how much money the asset is ultimately worth while calculating its depreciation.

What is the straight-line method of depreciation?

The other popular methods used in calculating depreciation value are; Sum of years method or unit of production method and double declining balance method. If you want to take the equation a step further, you can divide the annual depreciation expense by twelve to determine monthly depreciation. This step is optional, however, it can shed light on monthly depreciation expenses. Once you understand the asset’s worth, it’s time to calculate depreciation expense using the straight-line depreciation equation. By estimating depreciation, companies can spread the cost of an asset over several years. The straight-line depreciation method is a simple and reliable way small business owners can calculate depreciation.

  • This method depreciates the asset in a straight, downward, sloping line.
  • Accumulated depreciation is a contra asset account, which means that it is paired with and reduces the fixed asset account.
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  • When the amount of depreciation and the corresponding period are plotted on a graph it results in a straight line.

Let’s say Standard Manufacturing owns a large machine that they purchased for $270,000. The machine has a useful life of four years and is depreciated using the double-declining balance method. The final cost of the tractor, including tax and delivery, is $25,000, and the expected salvage value is $6,000. According to the table above, Jim can depreciate the tractor over a three-year period.

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The vehicle is estimated to have a useful life of 5 years and an estimated salvage of $15,000. A business purchased some essential operational machinery for $7,000. The machine is estimated to have a useful life of 10 years and an estimated salvage value of $2,000. According to the straight-line method of depreciation, your wood chipper will depreciate $2,400 every year.

It means that the asset will be depreciated faster than with the straight line method. The double-declining balance method results in higher depreciation expenses in the beginning of an asset’s life and lower depreciation expenses later. This method is used with assets that quickly lose value early in their useful life. A company may also choose to go with this method if it offers them tax or cash flow advantages. Depreciation expenditure should be recorded on a monthly basis to keep your profit and loss statement and balance sheet report current. On your profit and loss statement, depreciation charge will raise overall expenses.

Step 5: Divide by 12 for monthly depreciation (optional)

This means Sara will depreciate her copier at a rate of 20% per year. The easiest way to determine the useful life of an asset is to refer to the IRS tables, which are found in Publication 946, referenced above. If you don’t expect the asset to be worth much at the end of its useful life, be sure to figure that into the calculation.